pH Acidity or alkalinity ranging from 3 (strongly
acid) to 11 (strongly alkaline) with 7 being neutral.
- The suppression of growth of one plant species by another
due to the release of toxic substances.
that are staggered, not placed directly across from each other
on the twig.
A group of fungi that cause dieback and sometimes death to
various species, such as dogwoods, sycamores, oaks, and maples.
BLADE The flat
part of a leaf or leaflet, characteristic of broadleaf trees.
BRACT A modified
leaf that bears a flower.
tree with leaves that are flat and thin, and generally shed
BUD SCAR The
marks remaining after bud scales drop in the spring.
Any of various stone fruits (as some peaches or plums) with
flesh that adheres strongly to the pit.
A leaf with more than one blade. All blades are attached to
a single leafstem. Where the leafstem attaches to the twig,
there is a bud.
CONIFER A cone-bearing
Fertilization between genetically compatible trees for better
fruit, often resulting in superior offspring.
CROWN The head
of foliage of a tree or shrub -- this is the form or shape
of the tree.
all leaves annually.
ENTIRE A leaf
margin with smooth, untoothed edges.
with needles or leaves that remain alive and on the tree through
the winter and into the next growing season.
in shreds or thin layers, as bark from a tree.
fruit stone to which the flesh does not cling.
HABIT The general
mode of plant growth. Used to describe the overall shape of
A plant can be expected to grow in the zone's temperature
extremes, as determined by the lowest annual temperature.
Other conditions such as moisture, soil, and wind might affect
the availability of individual plants.
KNEES The tree
trunk in wet conditions exhibits a broad buttress with protrusions
from the roots.
LEAF SCAR The
mark left on the twig where the leaf was previously attached.
that shape a leaf.
edge of a leaf.
primary rib or central vein of a leaf.
Inherent and original to a geographic area.
or three leaves that are directly across from each other on
the same twig.
or lobes or veins of the leaf arranged like fingers on the
palm of a hand.
Deciduous leaf blades that remain on the tree for more than
leafstalk that connects the blade(s) to the twig.
The use of trees to take up chemicals, binding some of the
material in an inert form with the tree, and converting some
of it to other substances, possibly even breaking it down
into the normal end product of a tree's chemical
of lobes or veins of the leaf arranged like vanes of a feather.
seed-bearing organ of the flower. The pistil consists of an
ovary, stigma, and style when present.
To transfer pollen from the anther of a stamen to the stigma
of a pistil, resulting in fertilization. This can occur either
on a single plant (self-pollination) or between different
plants. Insect pollination and wind pollination are two examples
of natural pollination.
The planting of forested land that has been lost due to fire,
logging, drought, pests, or disease to restore beauty to the
landscape, provide food and habitat for wildlife, and for
An area of ecological transition between the aquatic zone
and the upland zone.
root upon which the scion is grafted.
SCION The part
of the tree that is grafted or budded to rootstock.
SELF-FERTILE / SELF-POLLINATING
Fertile by means of its own pollen; this makes it theoretically
possible for both pollen and ovules to unite and produce fruit
without a second tree being present.
A single leaf blade with a bud at the base of the leafstem.
between lobes on a leaf.
A tree placed so people can gain the greatest enjoyment for
the color, texture, scent, or other pleasures it provides.
often sharp twigs.
on the outer edge of a leaf.
three sets of chromosomes rather than the usual two. As a
result, the pollen is sterile.
water while maintaining trees and other plants in the landscape.